Birth Control

Abstinence

What is Abstinence? Abstinence is simply not having sex. Some people define abstinence as only avoiding vaginal sex while others believe it is not having sex of any kind including oral and anal sex. How does Abstinence Prevent Pregnancy? No meeting of the sperm and egg due to no sex.


What Are the Advantages of Abstinence

  1. No cost.
  2. No side effects.
  3. No risk of STIs or pregnancy.

What Are the Disadvantages of Abstinence?

  1. People may find it difficult to avoid sex.

Withdrawal (Pull out Method)

What is Withdrawal?
The withdrawal method is when the guy pulls his penis out of the vagina before ejaculation. Ejaculation is when semen (sperm) rushes out of the penis.
How Does the Withdrawal Method Prevent Pregnancy?
The withdrawal method prevents the sperm from meeting the egg which has to happen for pregnancy; although, many times, guys will have a “pre-ejaculation or cum” and sperm may get into the vagina that way. A pre-ejaculation is when small amounts of semen come out of the penis during sex that is not a complete ejaculation.

How Effective is the Withdrawal Method?
Out of 100 women, 18 or more pregnancies may occur when using only the withdrawal method.

What are the Advantages of the Withdrawal Method?

  1. Free.
  2. No prescription necessary.
  3. No side effects.
  4. What are the Disadvantages of the Withdrawal Method?
  5. One of the least effective methods.
  6. Requires much self-control by the guy and trust by the girl.
  7. Takes a lot of experience to be able to “pull-out” right.

Condoms

What Are Condoms?
A condom is a rubber barrier that may be worn by the girl inside of the vagina or by the guy over the penis during vaginal, oral, and anal sex.
Condoms are available in different materials, sizes, styles, and colors.

How Do Condoms Prevent Pregnancy?
A condom prevents the sperm from meeting the egg which is necessary for pregnancy.
Condoms also reduce the risk of transmitting STIs.

How Effective Are Condoms?
Condoms are one of the least effect methods with about 18 out of 100 women becoming pregnant with the use of this method.

 What are the Advantages of Using Condoms?

  1. Inexpensive and easy to get.
  2. No prescription is required.
  3. Can help relieve premature ejaculation (ejaculating too soon).
  4. Can be used with all other types of birth control as a back-up method and to prevent STIs.

What are the Disadvantages of Using Condoms?

  1. One of the least effective methods.
  2. Feeling during sex may be decreased.
  3. Allergies to the latex material the condom is made with.
  4. Guys may feel pressured to ejaculate and to maintain an erection.

Fertility Awareness Method (Natural Family Planning)

What is the Fertility Awareness Method?
Fertility Awareness Methods help to track ovulation (release of an egg from the ovary) to prevent pregnancy. Sex is avoided during this time period for the least risk.

How Does the Fertility Awareness Method Prevent Pregnancy?

Fertility Awareness Methods work by keeping sperm out of the vagina during times of ovulation. This is done by not having sex during the ovulation period.
There are about seven days where a woman has the chance of her egg meeting the sperm—five days before ovulation, the day of ovulation, and the day or two after ovulation.

What Are the Different Types of Fertility Awareness Methods?

  1. Temperature Method—involves the woman taking her temperature in the morning every day even before getting out of bed (will be an increase 24 hours prior to ovulation).
  2. Cervical Mucus Method—involves the woman checking her cervical mucus every day for the first part of her cycle until ovulation.
  3. Calendar Method—involves charting cycles on a calendar.

How Effective are the Fertility Awareness Methods?
With the fertility awareness methods, about 24 out of 100 women will become pregnant.

What are the Advantages of the Fertility Awareness Method?

  1. Safe.
  2. Cost is low.
  3. Medication is not needed.
  4. Supplies such as calendars and thermometers are usually easy to get.

What are the Disadvantages of the Fertility Awareness Method?

  1. One of the least effective methods.
  2. Not an effective method for women who do not have regular menstrual cycles.
  3. Have to remain abstinent usually for at least ten days in a row.

Breastfeeding Method

What is the Breastfeeding Method?
Breastfeeding may be used as an effective method for up to six months after pregnancy if the woman is exclusively breastfeeding (8-12 times daily including through the night) her baby. If the baby starts to sleep through the night, this may no longer be an effective method.

How Does the Breastfeeding Method Prevent Pregnancy?
During breastfeeding a woman’s hormones change preventing ovulation or release of an egg. If there is no ovulation then a woman cannot become pregnant.

How Effective is the Breastfeeding Method?
Less than 1 out of 100 women will become pregnant using this method as long as they are exclusively breastfeeding.

What are the Advantages of the Breastfeeding Method?

  1. Free.
  2. Does not require a prescription.
  3. A natural method.
  4. Reduces bleeding after delivery.
  5. Does not require medical supervision.

What are the Disadvantages of the Breastfeeding Method?

  1. The woman must breastfeed exclusively and during the night.
  2. Only reliable up to six months after birth of baby.
  3. Breastfeeding may reduce vaginal lubrication.

Birth Control Pill

What is the Birth Control Pill?
The birth control pill is a hormonal pill that can be taken every day to prevent pregnancy.

How Does the Birth Control Pill Prevent Pregnancy?
The pill prevents pregnancy by shutting off the ovary from making an egg and thickening cervical mucus. By thickening the cervical mucus the sperm is unable to get to the egg.

There are two types of birth control pills—the first type has estrogen and progestin and the second has progestin only.

How Effective is the Birth Control Pill?
Out of 100 women, about 9 will become pregnant while using the pill.

What are the Advantages of Using the Birth Control Pill?

  1. Lessens menstrual cramping and bleeding.
  2. Helps to regulate periods for those with irregular bleeding.
  3. Helps to prevent ovarian and uterine cancer.
  4. The pill will sometimes help with acne and other premenstrual symptoms including headaches and depression.

What are the Disadvantages of Using the Birth Control Pill?

  1. The pill has to be taken every day.
  2. Few women do experience some side effects such as bleeding between periods, breast tenderness, headaches, and nausea. Usually these side effects subside after three months of taking the pill.
  3. The hormones in the pill may decrease sexual desire.
  4. After stopping the pill, periods may become irregular for a few months.
  5. There are serious side effects of the pill for those women at increased risk.

Birth Control Patch

What is the Birth Control Patch?
The birth control patch is a hormonal patch used to prevent pregnancy. The patch is placed on the body then changed weekly for three weeks and taken off for a week to have a period.

How Does the Birth Control Patch Prevent Pregnancy?
The patch prevents pregnancy by shutting off the ovary from making an egg and thickening cervical mucus. By thickening the cervical mucus the sperm is unable to get to the egg.

How Effective is the Birth Control Patch?
Out of 100 women, about 9 will become pregnant while using the patch.

What are the Advantages of Using the Birth Control Patch?

  1. Lessens menstrual cramping and bleeding.
  2. Helps to regulate periods for those with irregular bleeding.
  3. Helps to prevent ovarian and uterine cancer.
  4. The patch will sometimes help with acne and other premenstrual symptoms including headaches and depression.

What are the Disadvantages of Using the Birth Control Patch?

  1. The patch needs to be replaced weekly.
  2. Few women do experience some side effects such as bleeding between periods, breast tenderness, headaches, and nausea. Usually these side effects go away after three months of using the patch.
  3. The patch can sometimes cause skin irritation.
  4. The hormones in the patch may decrease sexual desire.
  5. After stopping the patch, periods may become irregular for a few months.
  6. There can be serious side effects of the patch for those women at increased risk.

Birth Control Ring (NuvaRing)

What is the Birth Control Ring?
The birth control ring is a hormonal vaginal ring that helps to prevent pregnancy. The ring is placed in the vagina and taken out after three weeks to have a period.

How Does the Birth Control Ring Prevent Pregnancy?
The ring prevents pregnancy by shutting off the ovary from making an egg and thickening cervical mucus. By thickening the cervical mucus the sperm is unable to get to the egg.

How Effective is the Birth Control Ring?
Out of 100 women, about 9 will become pregnant while using the ring.

What are the Advantages of Using the Birth Control Ring?

  1. Lessens menstrual cramping and bleeding.
  2. Helps to regulate periods for those with irregular bleeding.
  3. Helps to prevent ovarian and uterine cancer.
  4. The ring will sometimes help with acne and other premenstrual symptoms including headaches and depression.

What are the Disadvantages of Using the Birth Control Ring?

  1. The ring has to be placed in the vagina and many women are uncomfortable doing this.
  2. Some women will have more vaginal infections with the ring.
  3. Few women do experience some side effects such as bleeding between periods, breast tenderness, headaches, and nausea. Usually these side effects subside after three months of using the ring.
  4. The hormones in the ring may decrease sexual desire.
  5. After stopping the ring, periods may become irregular for a few months.

There are serious side effects of the ring for those women at increased risk.

Birth Control Shot (Depo)

What is the Birth Control Shot?
The birth control shot is an injection of hormones that helps to prevent pregnancy. The shot is given every three months.

How Does the Birth Control Shot Prevent Pregnancy?
The hormone—progestin—prevents pregnancy by shutting off the ovary from making an egg and thickening cervical mucus. By thickening the cervical mucus the sperm is unable to get to the egg.

How Effective is the Birth Control Shot?
Out of 100 women, about 6 will become pregnant while using the shot.

What are the Advantages of Using the Birth Control Shot?

  1. Lessens menstrual cramping and bleeding.
  2. Helps to prevent uterine cancer.
  3. No daily pill to take.
  4. Private method without a package or case.
  5. Does not contain estrogen so it is a safer method for those who cannot have estrogen or are breastfeeding.

What are the Disadvantages of Using the Birth Control Shot?

  1. Irregular bleeding especially for the first 6-12 months.
  2. Some women will stop having periods. Even though this is normal this may still be a concern.
  3. A few other side effects woman may experience are breast tenderness, weight changes, headaches, nausea, and change in sex drive. Usually these side effects subside after three months of using the shot.
  4. After stopping the shot, it may take 6-12 months for periods to return.
  5. Long-term use of the shot may cause bone loss

Birth Control Implant (Nexplanon)

What is the Birth Control Implant?
The birth control implant is a thin, flexible rod that that is placed in the upper arm. The rod releases a hormone to help prevent pregnancy.
How Does the Birth Control Implant Prevent Pregnancy?

The hormone—progestin—prevents pregnancy by shutting off the ovary from making an egg and thickening cervical mucus. By thickening the cervical mucus the sperm is unable to get to the egg.

How Effective is the Birth Control Implant?
Out of 100 women, less than one will become pregnant while using the shot. The implant is one of the most effective types of birth control.

What are the Advantages of Using the Birth Control Implant?

  1. Lessens menstrual cramping and bleeding.
  2. Helps to prevent uterine cancer.
  3. No daily pill to take.
  4. Long-lasting birth control with high effectiveness.
  5. Does not contain estrogen so it is a safer method for those who cannot have estrogen or are breastfeeding.
  6. Fertility returns quickly after the device is removed.

What are the Disadvantages of Using the Birth Control Implant?

  1. Risk of irregular bleeding especially for the first 6-12 months.
  2. Some women will stop having periods. Even though this is normal this may still be a concern.
  3. A few other side effects woman may experience are breast tenderness, weight changes, headaches, nausea, and change in sex drive. Usually these side effects subside after three months of using the shot.

Intrauterine Devices (Mirena, Paragard, & Skyla)

What is an Intrauterine Device (IUD)?
The IUD is a T-shaped device that is placed into the uterus to help prevent pregnancy. There are three types of IUDs—Mirena, Paragard, and the Skyla. The Mirena and the Skyla IUDs have hormone and the Paragard copper IUD is non-hormonal.

How Does an IUD Prevent Pregnancy?
Both the copper and hormonal IUDs help to prevent pregnancy by blocking the egg from the sperm. If the egg and the sperm do not meet a pregnancy cannot happen.

How Effective is the IUD?

Out of 100 women, less than one will become pregnant. This is one of the most effective types of birth control.

What are the Advantages of Having an IUD? 

  1. One of the most effective and least expensive types of birth control.
  2. The hormonal IUDs may decrease cramping and bleeding during periods and sometimes periods completely stop.
  3. The copper IUD does not have any hormone in it for those women who cannot tolerate hormonal birth control.
  4. Fertility returns quickly after IUD is removed.
  5. What are the Disadvantages of Having an IUD?
  6. The hormonal IUDs may cause irregular bleeding for 3-6 months after insertion.
  7. The copper IUD may cause heavier and more painful periods.
  8. The insertion of the device may cause cramping and discomfort.
  9. With all three IUDs there is a small risk of infection, perforation, and expulsion.

Sterilization

What is Sterilization?
Sterilization is a type of birth control that is considered permanent for preventing pregnancy. One method of sterilization is when the fallopian tubes are tied, cut, and/or burned. The other method is when tiny springs are inserted into each tube, this is called the Essure method.

How Does Sterilization Prevent Pregnancy?
Sterilization prevents pregnancy by not allowing the egg to meet the sperm due to the fallopian tube path being blocked.

What are the Advantages of Sterilization?

  1. Does not cause a change in hormones, so safe for those women who cannot take them.
  2. Usually will be a permanent method.

What are the Disadvantages of Sterilization?

  1. Procedure is usually permanent and irreversible.
  2. Surgery is involved; although many times the Essure procedure may be done in the clinic office.

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Three Rivers Public Health Department

2400 North Lincoln Avenue, Fremont, NE 68025  ~  402-727-5396 / 1-866-727-5396
Serving Dodge, Saunders & Washington Counties in Eastern Nebraska

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